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Friday, 27 July 2012

Popes of the Catholic Church part 1


What is a pope?

Papal Seal
The Catholic Church teaches that Jesus personally appointed Peter as leader of the Church and in its dogmatic constitution Lumen Gentium makes a clear distinction between apostles and bishops, presenting the latter as the successors of the former, with the pope as successor of Peter in that he is head of the bishops as Peter was head of the apostles. 

The pope (from Latin: papa; from Greek: πάππας (pappas), a child's word for father) is the Bishop of Rome and the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. In the Catholic Church, the Pope is regarded as the successor of Saint Peter, the Apostle.

The writings of the Church Father Irenaeus who wrote around AD 180 reflect a belief that Peter "founded and organised" the Church at Rome. Moreover, Irenaeus was not the first to write of Peter's presence in the early Roman Church. Clement of Rome wrote in a letter to the Corinthians, c. 96 about the persecution of Christians in Rome as the "struggles in our time" and presented to the Corinthians its heroes, "first, the greatest and most just columns", the "good apostles" Peter and Paul. St. Ignatius of Antioch wrote shortly after Clement and in his letter from the city of Smyrna to the Romans he said he would not command them as Peter and Paul did.  Given this and other evidence, many scholars agree that Peter was martyred in Rome under Nero.

The office of the pope is known as the papacy. His ecclesiastical jurisdiction is often called the "Holy See" (Sancta Sedes in Latin), or the "Apostolic See" based upon the Church tradition that the Apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul were martyred in Rome. The pope is also head of state of Vatican City, a sovereign city-state entirely enclaved within the city of Rome.

The papacy is one of the most enduring institutions in the world and had a prominent part in human history. The Popes in ancient times helped in the spread of Christianity and the resolution of various doctrinal disputes. In the Middle Ages they played a role of secular importance in Western Europe, often acting as arbitrators between Christian monarchs, and averting several wars.  Currently, in addition to the expansion of the Christian faith and doctrine, the popes are dedicated to ecumenism and interreligious dialogue, charitable work, and the defense of human rights.

Popes have gradually been forced to give up temporal power, and papal authority is now almost exclusively restricted to matters of religion. Over the centuries, papal claims of spiritual authority have been ever more firmly expressed, culminating in 1870 with the proclamation of the dogma of papal infallibility for rare occasions when the pope speaks ex cathedra—literally "from the chair (of St. Peter)"—to issue a formal definition of faith or morals. The first explicit such occasion (after the proclamation), and so far the last, was the definition of the dogma of the Assumption of Mary in 1950.

The current office-holder is Pope Benedict XVI, who was elected in a papal conclave on 19 April 2005.

As of this date (July 2012) there have been 266 popes that have true successors of St. Peter.


The List of the True Succession Popes

St. Peter, the Apostle
1.     St. Peter (32-67) 
    Apostle of Jesus 
The proof that Christ constituted St. Peter head of His Church is found in the two 
famous Petrine texts, Matthew 16:17-19, and John 21:15-17.

Matthew 16:17-19

In Matthew 16:17-19, the office is solemnly promised to the Apostle. In response to his profession of faith in the Divine Nature of his Master, Christ thus addresses him:

"Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-Jona: because flesh and blood hath not revealed it to thee, but my Father who is in heaven. And I say to thee: That thou art Peter; and upon this rock 
I will build my Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. And I will give to thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven. And whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth it shall be bound also in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth, it shall be loosed also in heaven.


 John 21:15-17

The promise made by Christ in Matthew 16:16-19, received its fulfilment after the Resurrection in the scene described in John 21. Here the Lord, when about to leave the earth, places the whole flock — the sheep and the lambs alike — in the charge of the Apostle. The term employed in 21:16, "Be the shepherd [poimaine] of my sheep" indicates that his task is not merely to feed but to rule. It is the same word as is used in Psalm 2:9 (Septuagint): "Thou shalt rule [poimaneis] them with a rod of iron".

The scene stands in striking parallelism with that of Matthew 16. As there the reward was given to Peter after a profession of faith which singled him out from the other eleven, so here Christ demands a similar protestation, but this time of a yet higher virtue: "Simon, son of John, lovest thou Me more than these?"  Here, too, as there, He bestows on the Apostle an office which in its highest sense is proper to Himself alone. 

There Christ had promised to make Peter the foundation-stone of the house of God: here He makes him the shepherd of God's flock to take the place of Himself, the Good Shepherd.

Excerpts taken from  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12260a.htm
St. Linus, second Pope (67-76)

2.            St. Linus (67-76) 
3.            St. Anacletus (Cletus) 
               (76-88) 
4.           St. Clement I (88-97) 
5.           St. Evaristus (97-105) 
6.           St. Alexander I 
               (105-115) 
7.           St. Sixtus I (115-125) 
              Also called Xystus I 
8.           St. Telesphorus (125-136) 
St. Pius I (140-155)
9.           St. Hyginus          
              (136-140) 
10.                   St. Pius I (140-155) 
11.                   St. Anicetus 
              (155-166) 
12.                   St. Soter (166-175) 
13.                   St. Eleutherius 
              (175-189) 
14.                   St. Victor I (189-199) 
15.                   St. Zephyrinus (199-217) 

16.                   St. Callistus I (217-22) Callistus   
                      Opposed by St. Hippolytus, antipope (217-236)

17.                   St. Urban I (222-30) Opposed by St. Hippolytus, antipope (217-236)
18.                   St. Pontain (230-35) Opposed by St. Hippolytus, antipope (217-236)
19.                   St. Anterus (235-36) Opposed by St. Hippolytus, antipope (217-236)
20.                   St. Fabian (236-50) 
21.                   St. Cornelius (251-53) Opposed by Novatian, antipope (251) 
22.                   St. Lucius I (253-54) 
23.                   St. Stephen I (254-257) 
St. Sixtus II (257-258)
24.                   St. Sixtus II 
             (257-258) 
25.                   St. Dionysius 
               (260-268) 
26.                   St. Felix I 
               (269-274) 
27.                   St. Eutychian 
               (275-283) 
28.                   St. Caius (283-296) 
              Also called Gaius 
29.                   St. Marcellinus (296-304) 
30.                   St. Marcellus I (308-309) 
31.                   St. Eusebius (309 or 310) 
32.                   .St. Miltiades (311-14) 
St. Julius I (337-52)
33.                   St. Sylvester I (314-35) 
34.                   St. Marcus (336) 
35.                   St. Julius I (337-52) 
36.                   Liberius (352-66)  
            Opposed by Felix II, antipope (355-365) 
37.                   St. Damasus I (366-83)   
          Opposed by Ursicinus, antipope (366-367)
 
38.                   St. Siricius (384-99) 
39.                   St. Anastasius I 
              (399-401) 
40.                   St. Innocent I (401-17) 
41.                   St. Zosimus (417-18) 
42.                   St. Boniface I (418-22) Opposed by Eulalius, antipope (418-419) 
43.                  St. Celestine I (422-32) 
St. Leo I (the Great) (440-61)
44.                  St. Sixtus III 
             (432-40) 
45.                  St. Leo I (the Great)  
            (440-61) 
46.                  St. Hilarius (461-68) 
47.                  St. Simplicius 
             (468-83) 
48.                  St. Felix III (II) 
             (483-92) 
49.                  St. Gelasius I 
              (492-96) 
50.                  Anastasius II (496-98) 
51.                  St. Symmachus (498-514) Opposed by Laurentius, antipope (498-501)
52.                   St. Hormisdas (514-23)
53.                   St. John I (523-26) 
54.                  St. Felix IV (III) (526-30) 
55.                  Boniface II (530-32) Opposed by Dioscorus, antipope (530) 
56.                 John II (533-35) 
57.                  St. Agapetus I (535-36) or Agapitus I 
58.                St. Silverius (536-37) 
59.                 Vigilius (537-55) 
60.                   Pelagius I (556-61) 
61.                   John III (561-74) 
Pelagius II (579-90)
62.                   Benedict I (575-79) 
63.                   Pelagius II (579-90) 
64.                  St. Gregory I (the Great) 
            (590-604) 
65.                  Sabinian (604-606) 
66.                  Boniface III (607) 
67.                   St. Boniface IV (608-15) 
68.                   St. Deusdedit (Adeodatus I) (615-18) 
69.                   Boniface V (619-25) 
70.                   Honorius I (625-38) 
71.                   Severinus (640) 
St. Martin I (649-55)
72.                   John IV (640-42) 
73.                   Theodore I (642-49) 
74.                   St. Martin I (649-55) 
75.                   St. Eugene I (655-57) 
76.                   St. Vitalian (657-72) 
77.                   Adeodatus (II) 
                (672-76) 
78.                   Donus (676-78) 
79.                   St. Agatho (678-81) 
80.                   St. Leo II (682-83) 
81.                   St. Benedict II (684-85) 
82.                   John V (685-86) 
83.                   Conon (686-87) 
84.                   St. Sergius I (687-701) 
               Opposed by Theodore and Paschal, antipopes (687)
85.                   John VI (701-05) 
86.                   John VII (705-07) 
Constantine (708-15)
87.                   Sisinnius (708) 
88.                   Constantine 
              (708-15) 
89.                   St. Gregory II 
              (715-31) 
90.                   St. Gregory III 
              (731-41) 
91.                   St. Zachary 
                (741-52) 
92.                   Stephen II (752)  
                      Because he died before being consecrated, many authoritative lists omit him
93.                   Stephen III (752-57) 
94.                   St. Paul I (757-67) 
95.                   Stephen IV (767-72)  
                    Opposed by Constantine II (767) and Philip (768),  antipopes (767)
96.                   Adrian I (772-95) 
St. Leo III (795-816)
97.                   St. Leo III (795-816) 
98.                   Stephen V (816-17) 
99.                   St. Paschal I (817-24) 
100.             Eugene II (824-27) 
101.             Valentine (827) 
102.            Gregory IV (827-44) 
103.             Sergius II (844-47)                    Opposed by John, antipope (855) 
104.             St. Leo IV (847-55) 
105.            105.Benedict III (855-58) Opposed by Anastasius, antipope (855) 
106.             St. Nicholas I (the Great) (858-67) 
107.             Adrian II (867-72) 
108.             John VIII (872-82) 
109.             Marinus I (882-84) 
110.             St. Adrian III (884-85) 
Boniface VI (896)
111.             Stephen VI (885-91) 
112.             Formosus (891-96) 
113.             Boniface VI (896) 
114.             Stephen VII (896-97) 
115.             Romanus (897) 
116.             Theodore II (897) 
117.             John IX (898-900) 
118.             Benedict IV (900-03) 
119.             Leo V (903) Opposed by Christopher, antipope (903-904) 
120.             Sergius III (904-11) 
121.             Anastasius III (911-13) 
122.             Lando (913-14) 
123.             John X (914-28) 
124.             Leo VI (928) 
125.             Stephen VIII (929-31) 
126.             John XI (931-35) 
127.             Leo VII (936-39) 
128.             Stephen IX (939-42) 
129.             Marinus II (942-46) 
130.             Agapetus II (946-55) 
Benedict V (964)
131.             John XII (955-63) 
132.             Leo VIII (963-64) 
133.             Benedict V (964) 
134.             John XIII (965-72) 
135.             Benedict VI (973-74) 
136.             Benedict VII (974-83)              Opposed by Boniface VII,  
                       antipope (974; 984-985)
137.             John XIV (983-84) Opposed by Boniface VII, antipope (974; 984-985)
138.             John XV (985-96) 
139.             Gregory V (996-99) Opposed by John XVI, antipope (997-998) 
140.             Sylvester II (999-1003) 
141.             John XVII (1003) 
142.             John XVIII (1003-09) 
143.             Sergius IV (1009-12) 
144.             Benedict VIII (1012-24) Opposed by Gregory, antipope (1012)
 
145.             John XIX (1024-32) 
146.             Benedict IX (1032-45) 
              He appears on this list three separate times, because he was twice deposed and     
                        restored
147.             Sylvester III (1045) Considered by some to be an antipope??
Benedict IX (1032-45)(1045)(1047-48)
148.             Benedict IX 
               (1045) 
149.             Gregory VI 
               (1045-46) 
150.             Clement II 
              (1046-47)
151.             Benedict IX 
               (1047-48) 
152.              Damasus II 
              (1048)
153.             St. Leo IX (1049-54) 
154.             Victor II (1055-57) 
155.             Stephen X (1057-58) 
156.             Nicholas II (1058-61) Opposed by Benedict X, antipope (1058) 
157.             Alexander II (1061-73) Opposed by Honorius II, antipope (1061-1072)
 
158.             St. Gregory VII (1073-85) 
               Opposed by Guibert ("Clement III"),  antipope (1080-1100)
159.             Blessed Victor III (1086-87) 
             Also opposed by Guibert  ("Clement III"), antipope (1080-1100)
160.             Blessed Urban II (1088-99)
             Also opposed by Guibert  ("Clement III"),   antipope (1080-1100)
                                                                                 
161.             Paschal II (1099-1118) 
             Opposed by Theodoric (1100), Aleric (1102) and Maginulf ("Sylvester IV",          
                      1105-1111), antipopes (1100)

162.             Gelasius II (1118-19)  
                    Opposed by Burdin ("Gregory VIII"), antipope (1118)
163.             Callistus II (1119-24) 
164.             Honorius II (1124-30) Opposed by Celestine II, antipope (1124) 
165.             Innocent II (1130-43)  
                    Opposed by Anacletus II (1130-1138) and Gregory Conti  ("Victor IV") (1138),  
                     antipopes (1138)
166.             Celestine II (1143-44) 
167.             Lucius II (1144-45) 
168.             Blessed Eugene III (1145-53) 
Adrian IV (1154-59)
169.             Anastasius IV 
                (1153-54) 
170.             Adrian IV (1154-59) 
171.            Alexander III (1159-81)  
       Opposed by Octavius ("Victor IV")(1159-1164), Pascal III  (1165-1168), 
       Callistus III   (1168-1177) and Innocent III (1178-1180), antipopes
172.              Lucius III 
            (1181-85) 
173.            Urban III (1185-87) 
174.            Gregory VIII (1187) 
175.            Clement III (1187-91) 
176.            Celestine III (1191-98) 
177.            Innocent III (1198-1216) 
178.            Honorius III (1216-27) 
179.            Gregory IX (1227-41) 
180.            Celestine IV (1241) 
181.            Innocent IV (1243-54) 
182.            Alexander IV (1254-61) 
183.            Urban IV (1261-64) 
184.            Clement IV (1265-68) 
185.            Blessed Gregory X (1271-76) 
186.            Blessed Innocent V (1276) 
187.            Adrian V (1276) 
188.            John XXI (1276-77) 
189.            Nicholas III (1277-80) 
190.            Martin IV (1281-85) 
191.            Honorius IV (1285-87) 
Boniface VIII (1294-1303)
192.            Nicholas IV (1288-92) 
193.            St. Celestine V (1294) 
194.            Boniface VIII 
             (1294-1303) 
195.            Blessed Benedict XI 
             (1303-04) 
196.            Clement V (1305-14) 
197.            John XXII (1316-34) Opposed by Nicholas V, antipope (1328-1330) 
198.            Benedict XII (1334-42) 
199.            Clement VI (1342-52) 
200.            Innocent VI (1352-62) 
201.            Blessed Urban V (1362-70) 
202.            Gregory XI (1370-78) 
203.            Urban VI (1378-89) 
            Opposed by Robert of Geneva ("Clement VII"), antipope (1378-1394)
204.            Boniface IX (1389-1404)  
                  Opposed by Robert of Geneva ("Clement VII") (1378-1394),   
                     Pedro de Luna ("Benedict XIII") (1394-1417) and Baldassare Cossa 
                         ("John  XXIII") (1400-1415), antipopes
205.            Innocent VII (1404-06)  
                  Opposed by Pedro de Luna ("Benedict XIII") (1394-1417) and  
                Baldassare Cossa  ("John XXIII") (1400-1415), antipopes
206.            Gregory XII (1406-15)  
                  Opposed by Pedro de Luna  ("Benedict XIII")  (1394-1417), Baldassare Cossa
                    ("John XXIII") (1400-1415), and Pietro Philarghi ("Alexander V") (1409-1410),                   antipopes
207.            Martin V (1417-31) 
208.            Eugene IV (1431-47)  
                       Opposed by Amadeus of Savoy ("Felix V"), antipope  (1439-1449)
Callistus III (1455-58) Coin
209.            Nicholas V 
            (1447-55) 
210.            Callistus III 
             (1455-58) 
211.            Pius II 
             (1458-64) 
212.            Paul II 
              (1464-71) 
213.            Sixtus IV (1471-84) 
214.            Innocent VIII (1484-92) 
215.            Alexander VI (1492-1503) 
Leo X (1513-21)
216.            Pius III (1503) 
217.            Julius II (1503-13) 
218.            Leo X (1513-21) 
219.            Adrian VI 
             (1522-23) 
220.            Clement VII 
             (1523-34) 
221.            Paul III (1534-49) 
222.            Julius III (1550-55) 
223.            Marcellus II (1555) 
224.            Paul IV (1555-59) 
225.            Pius IV (1559-65) 
226.            St. Pius V (1566-72) 
227.            Gregory XIII (1572-85) 
228.            Sixtus V (1585-90) 
229.            Urban VII (1590) 
230.            Gregory XIV (1590-91) 
231.            Innocent IX (1591) 
232.            Clement VIII (1592-1605) 
Paul V (1605-21)
233.            Leo XI (1605) 
234.            Paul V (1605-21) 
235.            Gregory XV (1621-23) 
236.            Urban VIII (1623-44) 
237.            Innocent X (1644-55) 
238.            Alexander VII (1655-67) 
239.            Clement IX (1667-69) 
240.            Clement X (1670-76) 
241.            Blessed Innocent XI (1676-89) 
242.            Alexander VIII (1689-91) 
243.            Innocent XII (1691-1700) 
244.            Clement XI (1700-21) 
245.            Innocent XIII (1721-24) 
246.            Benedict XIII (1724-30) 
247.            Clement XII (1730-40) 
248.            Benedict XIV (1740-58) 
249.            Clement XIII (1758-69) 
250.            Clement XIV (1769-74) 
Blessed Pius IX (1846-78)
251.            Pius VI (1775-99) 
252.            Pius VII (1800-23) 

 253.            Leo XII (1823-29) 
254.            Pius VIII (1829-30) 
255.            Gregory XVI (1831-46) 
256.            Blessed Pius IX 
              (1846-78)  
             He was the longest serving 
              Pope in history
257.            Leo XIII 
              (1878-1903) 
258.            St. Pius X (1903-14)
259.            Benedict XV 
             (1914-22) 
260.            Pius XI (1922-39) 
261.            Pius XII (1939-58) 
262.            Blessed John XXIII (1958-63) 
Blessed John Paul II (1978-2005)
263.            Paul VI (1963-78) 
264.            John Paul I (1978) 
265.            Blessed John Paul II 
             (1978-2005)  
                He was the second-longest
                serving Pope in history 
                               and  
                the first non-Italian since 
                1523



266.            Benedict XVI 
                  (2005—)
Benedict XVI (2005------) Current Pope